Centre for the Study of Hispanic Exile



Significant Events

1874–1897 María de la O Lejárraga
Born in December to an educated family. Attends school. Studies at the Escuela Normal and begins work as a teacher in a working-class district of Madrid.
1897–1900 Enrique Díez Canedo
Studies Law at University
1900–1905 León Felipe
Studies Chemistry at the Universities of Valladolid and Madrid.
1904–1933 Enrique Díez Canedo
Publishes poems and criticism in many newspapers and journals: El Liberal, Revista Latina, Revista Crítica, La Lectura, Garo, Diario Universal, Renacimiento, El Globo, El Sol, España, La Voz, La Pluma, índice, Revista de Occidente... and La Nación, in Buenos Aires.
1905–1911 Antonio Espina
Secondary education at Instituto San Isidro.
1908–1913 Juan José Domenchina
Attends secondary school.
1909–1910 Américo Castro
Carries out his military service serving in military offices in Madrid.
1910 Pedro Salinas
Begins to attend the tertulias at the "Ateneo" and several cafes. Meets Enrique Díez Canedo, Ricardo Baeza, José Moreno Villa and other intellectuals.
1911 Américo Castro
PhD at the University of Madrid with a thesis titled "Contribución al estudio del dialecto leonés en Zamora".
1912–1916 Antonio Espina
Begins studying Medicine at University of Madrid. He does not complete his studies.
1913–1915 Américo Castro
Assistant lecturer at the University of Madrid.
1913–1918 Américo Castro
Publishes articles in several journals in America, such as Nosotros and Hispania.
1914 Américo Castro
Founds the Revista de Filología Española.
1915 Antonio Espina
Attends the tertulia "El Pombo", founded by Ramón Gómez de la Serna.
1915–1918 León Felipe
Imprisoned for three years for fraud and bankruptcy.
1915–1936 Américo Castro
Attains the chair of History of Spanish language at the University of Madrid.
1916–1921 José Moreno Villa
Works for the publishing house Calleja by suggestion of Juan Ramón Jiménez.
1918 León Felipe
Settles in Madrid, where he lives in bohemian poverty. Enrique Díez-Canedo helps him publishes some poems in the journal España.
1918–1920 Rosa Chacel
Starts to enter into literary circles in Madrid, after meeting Aurora de Albornoz. Attends the Ateneo and the tertulias of La Granja del Henar.
1919–1922 Ernestina de Champourcín
Secondary education at the Instituto Cisneros.
1920 María Teresa León
Marries Gonzalo de Sebastián.
1920–1933 Américo Castro
Regular contributor to the newspapers El Sol, in Madrid, La Nación, in Buenos Aires, and Excelsior, in Mexico.
1920–1935 Enrique Díez Canedo
Attends the tertulia of "Café Regina", where he meets Valle-Inclán, Manuel Azaña, Rivas Cheriff, Juan José Domenchina, Juan Chabás and other intellectuals.
Dec 1921 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Settles in Madrid, where he continues working for the Post Office.
1922 León Felipe
Returns to Spain for a few weeks, then travels to the US, where he stays in New York for a few months.
1922 Américo Castro
Joins the political party Partido Reformista.
1922–1925 Ernestina de Champourcín
Studies to become librarian.
1923 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Begins to publish his articles about music and cinema in the journal Alfar.
Dec 1923 Max Aub
Travels to Madrid for the first time. Meets Enrique Díaz Canedo and takes part in the tertulias at the Café Regina.
1924 Antonio Espina
Starts a relationship with Mercedes Abreu, with whom he will have three children before getting married in 1946.
Sep 1924–Jan 1925 Emilio Prados
Returns to the University of Madrid and the "Residencia de Estudiantes". Due to his disagreement with his friends, interrupts his studies and returns to Malaga.
Nov 1925–1937 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Lives in Madrid.
Dec 1925–1928 Luis Cernuda
Publishes his poems in Revista de Occidente, Mediodía, Verso y Prosa and Litoral.
Dec 1925–1928 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Writes for the left-wing magazines Estudiante and Post-Guerra, both directed by Rafael Giménez Siles.
1926–1931 José Herrera Petere
University studies in Law.
1928 María Teresa León
Separates from her husband. Moves to Madrid, where she lives with her uncle and aunt, Ramón Menéndez Pidal and María Goyri.
1928–1931 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Writes literary criticism for La Gaceta Literaria, El Sol and other publications. Writes about politics in daily press too.
1928–1931 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Publishes in La Gaceta Literaria. Becomes its editor between January and September 1929.
1928–1933 Paulino Masip
Publishes articles in many newspapers and magazines: Estampa, Ahora and El Sol. Publishes his first plays and meets other intellectuals, like Alejandro Casona and Max Aub.
Feb 1928 Paulino Masip
Settles in Madrid.
Jul 1928 Ernestina de Champourcín
Is interviewed for La Gaceta Literaria.
1929 María Teresa León
Meets the poet and dramatist Rafael Alberti.
Sep 1929–Aug 1931 Jesús Izcaray
Works as journalist for El Imparcial. Takes part in the sections of provinces of Spain and Sports.
Jan 1930 Luis Cernuda
Starts to work in León Sánchez Cuesta's bookshop.
Jan 1930 Antonio Espina
Co-founder and co-director of "Nueva España" with Esteban Salazar Chapela and José Díaz Fernández.
1930–1932 Juan Rejano
Lives in Madrid, where he works as a secretary for the revolutionary publishing company Cenit, directed by Rafael Giménez Siles. Contributes to the journal Postguerra, also directed by Giménez Siles. Publishes in Nueva España, El Estudiante, Acción and La Gaceta Literaria.
1930–1936 Pedro Salinas
Professor of Spanish Literature at the University of Madrid.
Aug 1930 María Zambrano
Appointed assistant lecturer of Metaphysics at the Universidad Central and teacher at the Instituto Escuela. Works on what will become her doctoral thesis, La salvación del individuo en Spinoza.
Sep 1930–Apr 1936 Ramón J. Sender
Writes for the Republican newspaper La Libertad.
1931 Pedro Garfias
Joins the Communist Party.
1931 José Herrera Petere
Co-founds the journal Extremos a que ha Llegado la Poesía Española.
1931 Antonio Espina
Joins the political party Izquierda Republicana.
1931 Jesús Izcaray
University degree.
1931 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Joins the Communist Party.
1931–1934 Juan José Domenchina
Becomes personal secretary to Manuel Azaña.
1931–1935 Jesús Izcaray
Attends the literary "tertulias" of the cafés Lion D'Or and La Granja.
1931–1936 Antonio Espina
Writes for left-wing journals, such as Nueva España, Línea, Post-guerra, Nueva Cultura and Política.
1931–1936 Ramón J. Sender
Writes in many left-wing journals: Orto, La Lucha, Literatura, Nuestro Cinema, Tensor', Mundo Obrero, Octubre'', etc.
1931–1936 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Writes for several left-wing journals, such as Octubre, Nueva Cultura, Leviatán, Frente Literario and Mundo Obrero.
May 1931 José Herrera Petere
Co-founds and directs the surrealistic journal En España ya Está Todo Preparado para que se Enamoren los Sacerdotes.
May 1931–Aug 1936 José Moreno Villa
Chief Librarian of the Archive of the National Palace of Madrid.
Aug 1931–1933 Jesús Izcaray
Works for the newspaper Heraldo de Madrid and writes the section about theatre for La Voz.
Sep 1931 Luis Cernuda
Begins to write for the Heraldo de Madrid.
1932 Manuel Altolaguirre
Founds the journal Héroe in collaboration with Concha Méndez.
1932 María Teresa León
Marries Alberti.
1932 Manuel Andújar
After his father's death, he arrives in Madrid where he studies Sales.
1932–1936 Luis Cernuda
Contributes to the journals Héroe and Octubre and the newspaper Heraldo de Madrid.
Sep 1932 María Zambrano
Replaces Xavier Zubiri as professor of Metaphysics at the Universidad de Madrid.
1933 Jesús Izcaray
Affiliates the socialist trade union UGT.
1933 Américo Castro
Founder of the Spanish-american Section of the "Centro de Estudios Históricos".
1933 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Collaborates with Rafael Alberti and María Teresa León in founding the Communist journal Octubre.
1933–1935 Jesús Izcaray
Works for the newspaper Luz, which was directed by Corpus Barga. He mainly conducts interviews to writers and also dies drama criticism.
1934 Eugenio Imaz
Writes regularly for the magazine Diablo Mundo.
1934 José Herrera Petere
PhD in Law.
1934 León Felipe
Briefly returns to Spain.
Mar 1934–Jan 1937 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Works for the newspaper La Voz.
Sep 1934–1936 Lorenzo Varela
Starts his studies in Philosphy at the University of Madrid. Attends the tertulias of La Granja del Henar and Pombo.
1935–1936 Lorenzo Varela
Co-founder of the literary journal PAN. Publishes his articles of literary criticism in the newspaper El Sol.
1936 Lorenzo Varela
Joins the Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas para la Defensa de la Cultura.
1936 Jesús Izcaray
Attends the socialist tertulia at Café Miami.
1936–1938 Enrique Díez Canedo
During the war, cooperates with the journal Hora de España. He directs the magazine Madrid and participates in the Second International Congress for the Defense of Culture.
Mar–Oct 1936 Jesús Izcaray
Works for the newspaper Ahora, which was directed by Manuel Chaves Nogales.
Jul 1936 León Felipe
Decides to return to Spain on the outbreak of the Civil War.
Aug 1936 Emilio Prados
Moves to Alicante and Madrid, due to the fear of the fall of Malaga.
Aug–Dec 1936 Emilio Prados
Lives in the Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas, where other intellectuala -Zambrano, León, Serrano Plaja, Alberti, Altolaguirre, Miguel Hernández, Bergamín, Cernuda and others live too.
Aug 1936–Jan 1937 León Felipe
Lives in Madrid, and campaigns in favour of the Republic. Lives with Rafael Alberti, María Teresa León and Emilio Prados.
Sep 1936 Luis Cernuda
Collaborates with the Republican army and the Alianza de Escritores Antifascistas: radio broadcasts, articles, speeches.
15 Feb 1937 José Herrera Petere
Marries Carmen Soler
Jun 1937 María Zambrano
Returns to Madrid on the day that Bilbao is taken by the Nationalists. Becomes a member of the editorial board of Hora de España. Appointed Consejera de Propaganda and Consejera Nacional de la Infancia Evacuada by the Republican government.
Jul 1937 Eugenio Imaz
Attends the 2nd International Congress of Anti-fascist Writers.
Jul 1937 José Herrera Petere
Takes part in the Second Congress for the Defense of Culture
Jul 1937 Max Aub
Takes part in the organisation of the Second Congress of Anti-Fascist Writers.
1938 José Herrera Petere
Awarded National Prize of Literature for Acero de Madrid.
1938 Max Aub
Appointed General Secretary to the National Theatre Council.
1938 César M. Muñoz Arconada
Awarded the National Literature Prize for his novel Río Tajo.
Mar 1947 Manuel Lamana
Attends the Universidad Complutense. Illegally re-founds the clandestine Federación Universitaria Española. Arrested and imprisoned on a number of occasions.
1 Jun 1950 Manuel Altolaguirre
Travels to Spain for the first time since the end of the Civil War.
1951 Ernestina de Champourcín
First trip to Spain after the war. She meets some relatives.
1963 Luís Seoane
Large exhibition of his work held in Madrid, at the Dirección General de Bellas Artes.
1964 Manuel Andújar
Travels to Spain for the first time since the war on behalf of the FCE.
1967 Manuel Andújar
Returns to Spain. Starts working for the publishing company Alianza.
1967 José Ricardo Morales
First trip to Spain since the war.
1968 Ernestina de Champourcín
New trip to Spain
Aug–Nov 1969 Max Aub
He is allowed to enter Spain for the first time since the end of the Civil War.
Dec 1971 Américo Castro
His wife dies.
1972 Rosa Chacel
Third visit to Spain.
May–Jul 1972 Max Aub
Travels to Spain again. Returns to Mexico three days before his death.
1973 José Herrera Petere
Granted special permission to return to Spain for two months.
Apr 1977 María Teresa León
Returns to Madrid.
1985 Virgilio Botella Pastor
Returns to live in Spain.
1988 María Teresa León
María Teresa dies, suffering from Alzheimer's.
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