Centre for the Study of Hispanic Exile



Significant Events

- José Bergamín
Studied Law at Madrid University.
- Guillermo de Torre
Graduates in Laws
- Concha Méndez
Studied at the "Colegio Francés" in Madrid.
1893 Pau Casals
Finished his studies at the Escola Municipal de Música. Then went to Madrid, where he managed to obtain a stipend from the Queen through the mediation of Count Morphy, a protector of the arts
1893 Pau Casals
Entered the music conservatoire, where he studied chamber music with Jesús de Monasterio and composition with Tomás Bretón. Casals was assisted in his general education by Count Morphy and the Queen
1895 Pau Casals
Finished his studies at the Conservatoire, and was awarded the Cruz de Isabel la Católica by the Queen
1897 Pau Casals
Performed in Madrid at the Royal Palace and before a wider audience, but achieved little success.
1898–1902 Corpus Barga
Attends primary school, Colegio Figueroa.
1900 Juan Ramón Jiménez
Thanks to his friend the poet Fernando Villaespesa, he meets some of the most influential writers of the time, such as Azorín, Darío, Baroja, Salvador Rueda, Valle-Inclán and Benavente, during a stay in Madrid.
1904–1907 Corpus Barga
Studies engineering. Withdraws after his father's death.
1906–1912 Corpus Barga
Writes for El País, El Radical, El Liberal and El Intransigente.
1907–1910 Rosa Chacel
Moves to Madrid to live with her grandmother. They live in the Barrio de Maravillas, which she will go on to write about.
1907–1913 Corpus Barga
Relates to Azorín, Silverio Lanza, Manuel Machado, Rafael Ciges Aparicio, Ramón Gómez de la Serna and, specially, Pío Baroja.
1908 Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao
Exhibition of drawings in Madrid. Begins to contribute to the magazine Vida Gallega.
1909–1910 Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao
Doctoral studies in Madrid. Takes part in the III Exposición Nacional de Humoristas and becomes an illustrator for El Cuento Semanal.
1910 Juan Chabás
Moves to Madrid.
1910 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Finished his piano studies at the Madrid Conservatoire
1911 Corpus Barga
Returns to Madrid.
1911–1916 José Moreno Villa
Gets a job for the art section of the "Centro de Estudios Históricos".
1912 Julián Bautista
Began studying piano under Pilar Fernández de la Mora
1913 Salvador Bacarisse
Begins studying humanities at the Universidad de Madrid, at the same time he studied music at the Conservatorio de Música de Madrid. He formed part of the composition class of Conrado del Campo
1914–1917 Jorge Guillén
Lives in Residencia de Estudiantes.
1914–1920 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Lived at the Residencia de Estudiantes
1914–1921 Emilio Prados
Travels to Madrid, after obtaining a place in the Children's group of the "Residencia de Estudiantes", attending school at "Instituto San Isidro".
1914–1926 José Herrera Petere
Primary school in El Pilar. Becomes friends with Luis Felipe Vivanco.
1915 Ernestina de Champourcín
Moves to Madrid, where she attends the Holy Heart School.
1915 Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao
Takes part in the Exposición de Bellas Artes in Madrid, to critical acclaim.
1915 Julián Bautista
Entered the composition course of Conrado del Campo at the Conservatory of Music in Madrid
1916 Juan Chabás
Studies Philosophy and Law at the Universidad de Madrid.
1916–1930 José Moreno Villa
Begins to publish articles and poems in Revista de Occidente, España and the newspaper El Sol.
1917 Rafael Alberti
Moves to Madrid with his family.
1917 Concha Méndez
Meets Luis Buñuel, who would be her boyfriend for five years.
Sep–Oct 1917 Corpus Barga
Returns to Spain, where he is imprisioned because of an article he had published before travelling to France.
1918 Pedro Garfias
Moves to Madrid.
1918 Ramón J. Sender
Runs away from home and goes to Madrid, where he is homeless for a time. Starts to publish articles and stories, including his first story, Las brujas del compromiso, in several newspapers and journals, such as El Imparcial, El País, España Nueva and La Tribuna. He publishes these under a pseudonym.
Apr 1918 Pedro Garfias
Moves to Madrid, where he continues his university studies. Attends the 'ultraista' tertulia of the Café Colonial, where he meets Rafael Cansinos-Assens.
1919–1922 Juan Chabás
Publishes his poems in the journals Cervantes, España, Índice, Ultra, Tableros and Horizonte.
1920 Rafael Alberti
His father dies. Exhibition of his paintings at the Salón Nacional de Otoño.
1920–1931 Antonio Espina
Publishes articles in El Sol, Luz, Crisol España, Grecia, La Pluma, Alfar, Litoral, Verso y Prosa, Índice, Revista de Occidente and La Gaceta Literaria.
8 Sep 1920 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Married Jovita Cué Landa and lived in Madrid thereafter
1921 José Bergamín
Publishes his first works in Indice, the journal directed by Juan Ramón Jiménez
1921 José Bergamín
Starts working in his father's legal office, where Manuel Altolaguirre becomes his friend.
1921 Paulino Masip
Starts to work for Espasa-Calpe, as a translator.
1921 María Zambrano
Studies Philosophy and Letters at the Universidad de Madrid.
1921 Jesús Bal y Gay
Takes a piano examination at the Real Conservatorio de Madrid, having studied in Lugo
1921–1935 Juan José Domenchina
Writes literary criticism for Los Lunes de El Imparcial, España, La Pluma, Revista de Occidente, La Voz and El Sol, where he used the pseudonym of Gerardo Rivera.
1922 Rafael Alberti
First poems published in the journal Horizonte. Exhibits his paintings at the Ateneo de Madrid.
1922 Francisco Ayala
Moves with his family to Madrid. Calle Lope de Vega 4
1922 Juan Chabás
Teaches Spanish Literature at the Centro de Estudios Históricos.
1922 Salvador Bacarisse
Back in Madrid marries Pilar Cuadrado Sanz, with whom he had a son, Salvador, in 1923
1922–1923 Antonio Espina
Works as editor for Heraldo de Madrid.
Apr 1922 Rosa Chacel
Marries the painter Timoteo Pérez Rubio.
Aug 1922–May 1931 José Moreno Villa
He is set as librarian of the Faculty of Pharmacy, in the University of Madrid.
Nov 1922–Mar 1923 Pedro Garfias
Founds the journal Horizonte, which he edits.
1923 José Gaos
Degree in Philosophy at the University of Madrid. He was taught by José Ortega y Gasset and Manuel García Morente.
1923 Salvador Bacarisse
Awarded the National Music Prize by the Spanish Ministry of Fine Arts. The awarded work is the symphonic poem La nave de Ulises
Feb 1923–Jan 1935 Arturo Barea
Lives in Madrid
May 1923 Salvador Bacarisse
First public performance of his works. Sala Aeolian Work performed: Tres piezas para quinteto (op. 3a)
1924 Concha Méndez
Begins meeting the Spanish Vanguardist writers around the "Residencia de Estudiantes", such as Cernuda, García Lorca, Alberti, Dalí.
1924 Rafael Alberti
Meets other artists and members of the so-called Generation of 27 at the Residencia de Estudiantes: García Lorca, Salinas, Guillén, Dalí, Buñuel, Aleixandre, Gerardo Diego, Dámaso Alonso and José Bergamín. Mar y tierra, re-titled Marinero en tierra, wins the Premio Nacional de Literatura.
1924–1930 Ramón J. Sender
Works for the newspaper El Sol, writing articles and editing content.
1924–1933 Jesús Bal y Gay
Resided at the Residencia de Estudiantes, Madrid, except for the period 1927-1928 when he performed his military service. During this period he entered the Seminario de Estudos Gallegos. He also began compiling the Cancionero gallego under the auspices of the Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios, in collaboration with Eduardo Martínez Torner.
1925 Juan José Domenchina
Joins the Acción Republicana party, led by Manuel Azaña.
1925 Jorge Guillén
Obtains his PhD with a dissertation about Góngora.
1925 Lecuona Casado, Ernesto
Premiered several works in theatres in Madrid and progressively abandoned creole elements to incorporate more cosmopolitan traits
1925–1930 José Moreno Villa
Attends the tertulias of "La Granja del Henar", where he ususally meets Azaña, Negrín, Araquistáin and Bello.
1925–1935 Jesús Bal y Gay
Covers music events in Madrid for the Vigo-based newspaper El Pueblo Gallego
Dec 1925–Oct 1927 Rafael Dieste
Starts to work as correspondent for the newspaper El Pueblo Gallego.
1926 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Attends the tertulias of Revista de Occidente, where he becomes a close friend of Francisco Ayala and Antonio Espina.
1926–1936 Salvador Bacarisse
Artistic Director of Music in Unión Radio
1927 Francisco Ayala
Publishes his first articles in Revista de Occidente and La Gaceta Literaria
1927 Ernestina de Champourcín
Joins the Literature Section of the Club Lyceum.
1927 Guillermo de Torre
Co-founder of La Gaceta Literaria. Becomes its secretary.
1927 María Zambrano
She is taught by Ortega y Gasset and Xavier Zubiri at the Universidad de Madrid.
1927–1931 Ernestina de Champourcín
Writes articles for El Heraldo, La Época, Ahora and La voz en el viento.
25 Jun 1927–1 Jun 1928 Rafael Giménez Siles
Founds and edits the journal Post-Guerra, which publishes a total of 13 issues between 1927 and 1928 (its last issue came out on 1st September 1928).
Sep 1927 Rosa Chacel
Returns to Madrid.
1928 José Gaos
Obtains his PhD. Dissertation: The critics of Psycologism in Husserl.
1928 Jesús Bal y Gay
Began working at the Centro de Estudios Históricos, compiling romances from Cantabria as well as the Cancionero gallego. Following his differences with Martínez Torner, Menéndez Pidal charges him with the study of Spanish music of the 16th and 17th centuries
1928–1929 Rosa Chacel
Writes for La Gaceta Literaria and Revista de Occidente and becomes close disciple of José Ortega y Gasset.
9 Feb–4 Jul 1928 Rafael Giménez Siles
Imprisoned by the Consejo de Guerra in the Modelo prison, for inciting soldiers on their way to Morocco to mutiny.
Jul 1928 José Bergamín
Marries Rosario Arniches, daughter of the playwright Carlos Arniches.
1 Oct 1928 Francisco Ayala
Appointed Assistant Professor of Public Law
1929 Ernestina de Champourcín
Becomes secretary of the Liceo Femenino.
1929 Guillermo de Torre
Marries Norah Borges.
1929 Eugenio Imaz
Degree in Philosophy
1929–1931 Concha Méndez
Writes articles for La Gaceta Literaria.
1929–1931 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Works for the powerul publishing company CIAP.
1929–1936 María Zambrano
Becomes close friends with Jiménez de Asúa and Fernando de los Ríos.
1 Oct 1929 Francisco Ayala
1930 Rafael Alberti
Meets Maria Teresa León.
1930 Juan Chabás
Joins the Partido Radical Socialista.
1930 Rafael Dieste
Moves to Madrid, where he often attends the tertulia at La Granja del Henar.
1930 Julián Bautista
Participated in the inauguration of the Grupo de los Ocho (also, Generación de la Republica) and presented at the Residencia de Estudiantes. Most of its members took exile during of after the Civil War
1930 Rodolfo Halffter
Appeared as a member of the Grupo de los Ocho and presented at the Residencia de Estudiantes
1930 Rodolfo Halffter
Worked as a music critic for the newspaper La Voz
1930 Gustavo Pittaluga
At the Residencia de Estudiantes, gives a paper known as Manifiesto del Grupo, introducing the Grupo de los Ocho
1930–1932 Virgilio Botella Pastor
Works in the Legal Department with Álvaro de Albornoz, a close political ally of his father's.
1930–1939 Paulino Masip
Lives in Madrid, where he attends the tertulias of La Granja del Henar.
1 Jun 1930 Francisco Ayala
Returns to Madrid
29 Nov 1930 Salvador Bacarisse
Appeared as one of the members of the Grupo de los Ocho's Presentation at the Residencia de Estudiantes.
Dec 1930 Juan Chabás
Returns to Madrid, where he works for the Heraldo de Madrid.
1931 Rafael Alberti
Joins the Communist Party. Meets Miguel de Unamuno. Travels to Paris.
1931 José Herrera Petere
Publishes his first poems in La Gaceta Literaria.
1931 José Herrera Petere
Joins the Communist Party
1931 Concha Méndez
Attends the 'tertulia' at La Granja del Henar. There, García Lorca introduces her to Manuel Altolaguirre.
1931 Rodolfo Halffter
Music secretary for the Ministry of Propaganda, Spanish Republic
1931 Salvador Bacarisse
Urgoiti, Nicolás M. de
Started contributing music criticism for the newspaper Crisol, funded and directed by Nicolás M. de Urgoiti
1931 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Appointed to the Junta Nacional de Música
1931–1939 José Gaos
Professor of the University of Madrid.
1 Feb 1931 Francisco Ayala
Returns to Madrid
1 Jun 1931 Rafael Alberti
Fermín Galán staged at the Teatro Español de Madrid by Margarita Xirgu.
21 Jul 1931 Salvador Bacarisse
Appointed member of the Junta Nacional de Música y Teatros Líricos, created by the government of the recently instituted Second Republic
Dec 1931–1933 Alejandro Casona
Moves after being appointed Inspector in Madrid.
1932 Alejandro Casona
Wins the National Prize for Literature for his work Flor de Leyendas.
1932 Rafael Alberti
Performance of Los salvadores de España at the Teatro de la Zarzuela.
1932 Julián Bautista
Awarded First Prize by the Unión Radio International Competition for his Obertura para una ópera grotesca, Op. 12
1932 Salvador Bacarisse
Urgoiti, Nicolás M. de
Started contribuing criticism for the newspaper Luz, successor of Crisol, Also funded by Nicolás M. de Urgoiti
1932 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Was appointed the Chair of Folkloric Studies at the National Conservatoire. Also appointed lecturer at the Institución Libre de Enseñanza.
1932–1934 Rafael Dieste
Joins the Misiones Pedagógicas. Directs the teatro Guiñol. Meets Cernuda, Zambrano, Sánchez Barbudo, Gaya, Varela, Serrano Plaja, etc. Travels to Galicia, Extremadura and other Spanish provinces.
1932–1936 Guillermo de Torre
Lives in Madrid. Writes for El Sol, Revista de Occidente, La Vie des Lettres and L’Esprit Nouveau.
1932–1936 Virgilio Botella Pastor
Jefe de Administración del Cuerpo de Intervención Civil de la Marina.
1933 José Bergamín
Founds the journal Cruz y Raya.
1933 Eduardo Blanco Amor
Meets Federico García Lorca.
1933 Jesús Izcaray
Joins the Socialist Party.
1933 Paulino Masip
Director of the newspaper La Voz.
1933 Virgilio Botella Pastor
Marries María Dolores Batalla.
1933 María Zambrano
Publishes her first essay, Por qué se escribe, in the Revista de Occidente.
1933 Gustavo Pittaluga
Organises the concert series of the Sociedad de Cursos y Conferencias. The series begins with the Orquesta Filarmónica de Madrid conducted by Pittaluga
1933 Fornés, Rosa
Moves to Madrid with her family
1933–1934 José Herrera Petere
Writes for the magazine Octubre.
1933–1936 Eugenio Imaz
Secretary of the jornal 'Cruz y Raya and the Publishing House Ediciones del Árbol, both directed by his friend José Bergamín.
Mar 1933–Dec 1935 Eduardo Blanco Amor
Returns to Spain again as correspondent of La Nación
Apr 1933–Nov 1937 Corpus Barga
Becomes director of the newspaper Luz.
May 1933–Sep 1935 Pedro Garfias
Starts writing for the Heraldo de Madrid and El Sol. Publishes articles in the journal Octubre.
1934 Francisco Ayala
Starts writing for the newspaper El Sol.
1934 Alejandro Casona
Wins the Lope de Vega Prize for his play La sirena varada.
1934 Juan José Domenchina
Joins the Izquierda Republicana party, led by Manuel Azaña.
1934 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Becomes member of the political party Izquierda Republicana.
1934 Paulino Masip
La Frontera performed at the Teatro Cervantes.
1934 Gustavo Pittaluga
Begins writing music criticism for the Diario de Madrid
Apr–Jul 1934 Corpus Barga
Founds and directs the magazine Diablo Mundo.
Nov 1934–Dec 1935 Corpus Barga
Writes for the newly founded newspaper Diario de Madrid.
1935 Carlos Blanco
Goes to primary school
1935 Enrique Díez Canedo
Is appointed Member of the Spanish Academy.
1935 Rafael Dieste
Writes for the journal PAN.
1935 Gustavo Pittaluga
Appointed member of the Music Section of the Ateneo de Madrid. Involved in centennary organisation.
1935 Gustavo Pittaluga
Appointed Music Director of the Chamartín Cinema Studios
1 Dec 1935 José Bergamín
Final issue of Cruz y Raya
1936 Juan José Domenchina
Founds the literary journals Boletín de Información and Suplemento Literario del Servicio Español de Información.
1936 Rafael Dieste
Member of the Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas.
1936 Alfonso Rodríguez Castelao
Re-elected as a candidate for the Frente Popular. Campaigns in favour of the Galician Statute of Autonomy, which is approved in June 1936. He is in Madrid when the military coup occurs, moving to Valencia and then to Barcelona.
1936 Paulino Masip
El báculo y el paraguas performed at the Teatro Zarzuela.
1936–1939 Jesús Izcaray
War correspondant for Ahora, Estampa -as chief editor-, Mundo Obrero -as sub-director- and Frente Rojo.
Jun 1936–1938 Juan José Domenchina
Is appointed director of the Instituto Español del Libro.
30 Jun 1936 José Bergamín
Appointed president of the Antifascist Intellectuals Alliance.
Jul 1936 José Herrera Petere
Joins the Republican Army as a volunteer and serves in the Quinto Regimiento, with Miguel Hernández and Arturo Serrano Plaja.
Jul 1936–Jan 1937 Rosa Chacel
Writes for anti-fascist journals during the war and works as a nurse.
Jul 1936–Feb 1939 Rafael Dieste
Publishes his works in anti-fascist journals, such as El Miliciano Gallego, El Mono Azul, Hora de España and El Buque Rojo.
18 Jul 1936–9 Jan 1937 Esteban Salazar Chapela
During the first months in Madrid, he stays in Madrid, writing articles in favour of the Republican Regime.
20 Jul 1936 Francisco Ayala
Returns to Republican Spain
Aug 1936 Rafael Dieste
Appointed Director of the Teatro Español.
Sep–Nov 1936 Virgilio Botella Pastor
In charge of control and surveillance of the Spanish gold reserve.
Nov 1936 Juan José Domenchina
Marries Ernestina de Champourcín.
6 Nov 1936 Ernestina de Champourcín
Marries the poet Juan José Domenchina.
1937 Arturo Barea
During the war in Madrid, he serves as a censor of foreign correspondents. Meets John Dos Passos, Ernest Hemingway and other foreign correspondents
1937 Rosa Chacel
Writes for Hora de España, El Mono Azul and other anti-fascist journals.
1937–1938 Corpus Barga
Writes for Republican journals such as El Mono Azul, Hora de España,
Feb 1937 Emilio Prados
Escapes to Madrid when Malaga is conquered by Francoist army.After the start of the Civil War, moves to Madrid, where he joins the "Alianza de Intelectuales Antifascistas".
Jul 1937 Rafael Dieste
Attends the II International Congress of Anti-fascist Writers.
Jul 1937 Corpus Barga
Splits with La Nación for the newspaper's sympathy towards Franco.
Jul 1937 Corpus Barga
Takes part in the 2nd International Congress of Anti-fascist Writers.
1938 Rafael Alberti
Joins the Republican Air Force as a volunteer.
1938 Juan Chabás
Marries the French journalist and writer Simone Téry.
1938 Jesús Izcaray
Appointed Chief Editor of "Mundo Obrero".
Feb 1938 Arturo Barea
Marries the Austrian journalist Ilse Kulcsar.
1949 Julio Alejandro
Shanghai-San Francisco performed at the Teatro Lara.
27 Jan 1949 Antonio [Antonio Ruiz Soler]
Back in Spain, they performed at the Teatro Fontalba as Rosario y Antonio, Los Chavalillos Sevillanos. Later that year they performed at the Teatro San Fernando, in Seville.
1950 Julio Alejandro
Barriada performed at the María Guerrero theatre. The staging of the play was considered to be ahead of its time and was critically well-received.
1950 Julio Alejandro
Performance of El termómetro marca 40 by Catalina Bárcena's theatre company. It was a critical failure.
1956 Antonio Espina
Returns to Spain, where he finds a job for the publishing company Aguilar.
1958–1963 Antonio Espina
Writes articles for ABC. This ends when Espina publishes an article in El Tiempo, in Bogotá, where he critiques the concept of "Hispanidad".
Dec 1958 José Bergamín
Returns to Spain.
Jul 1961 Esteban Salazar Chapela
Returns to Madrid for a short and disappointing visit.
Jan–Jun 1962 Rosa Chacel
Returns to Madrid for the first time since the war. Gives lectures.
1962 Agustín Gómez Arcos
Awarded the premio Lope de Vega for Diálogos de la herejía. The prize is later withdrawn by the censors.
1962 Alejandro Casona
Returns to Spain for performance of La dama del alba in Madrid. Followed by a three year season of performances of his plays, the 'festival Casona'.
1962 Gustavo Pittaluga
Returns to Madrid, already ill
Apr 1962 Alejandro Casona
Returns to live in Spain.
1963 Alejandro Casona
Returns to Madrid.
1963 Corpus Barga
First journey to Spain after the war.
1964 Agustín Gómez Arcos
Diálogos de la herejía staged in Madrid.
1965 Jesús Bal y Gay
Settles in Madrid
1970 José Bergamín
Definitive return to Spain
1970 Corpus Barga
Second journey to Spain.
Jun–Jul 1971 Rosa Chacel
Visits Madrid once again, invited there by Angel Rosenblat.
1972 Ernestina de Champourcín
New trip to Madrid.
1975 Gustavo Pittaluga
Dies at the age of 69
24 Sep 1976 Rafael Alberti
El Adefesio performed at the Reina Victoria theatre, directed by José Luis Alonso, starring María Casares.
27 Apr 1977 Rafael Alberti
Returns to Spain. Elected delegate for the Communist Party the same year. He soon abandons this role, preferring to be a 'poeta en la calle'.
1978 Rafael Alberti
Performance of Noche de guerra en el Museo del Prado at the Teatro María Guerrero.
15 Dec 1983 Francisco Ayala
Is appointed member of the Real Academia Española
20 Dec 1983 Paco Ignacio Taibo (I)
Taibo's Morir del todo performed as part of an exhibition on Spanish exile in Mexico at the Palacio de Velázquez del Retiro.
6 Feb 1991 María Zambrano
Dies in Madrid. She is buried in her home town of Vélez-Málaga.
22 Feb 1991 Agustín Gómez Arcos
Interview de Mrs. Muerta Smith por sus fantasmas performed in Spain, directed by Carme Portaceli.
18 Feb 1992 Pedro Salinas
La Cabeza de Medusa performed at the Círculo de Bellas Artes in Madrid, directed by Pilar Massa.
9 Jul 1992 Pedro Salinas
Judit y el tirano performed at the Teatro Español, directed by Manuel Collado.
Nov 1992 Agustín Gómez Arcos
Los gatos performed in its original, uncensored, version at the María Guerrero theatre (directed by Carme Portaceli), before touring Spain and travelling to Buenos Aires in 1993.
1993 Jesús Bal y Gay
Dies aged 88
7 Dec 1994 Agustín Gómez Arcos
Premiere of Queridos míos, directed by Carme Portaceli, at the María Guerrero. It runs until the end of January 1995.
1996 Antonio [Antonio Ruiz Soler]
Dies aged 75
2009 Francisco Ayala
Dies at the age of 103 and cremated at the San Isidro cemetery in Madrid.
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