Centre for the Study of Hispanic Exile



Significant Events

1898 Jordá Rosell, Luis Gimeno
Arrived in Mexico with other Spanish musicians, following an invitation by the Arcaraz company. He directed several productions at the Teatro Principal
1910 Jordá Rosell, Luis Gimeno
Founded the journal El Arte Musical which informed and discussed about music, and published the work of Mexican and European composers
1912 Iris, Esperanza
Success with operetta
20 Nov 1924 Martínez Torner, Eduardo
Embarked on an eight-month trip to Cuba and Mexico, funded by the Asturias Regional Council to do research on popular music
1933 Lecuona Casado, Ernesto
Season in Mexico, with Luisa María Morales and other Mexican singers
1935 Rafael Alberti
Meets Mexican painters Orozco, Siqueiros and Rivera.
Feb–Apr 1935 María Teresa León
Travels around America before returning to Spain.
Jun 1937 Alejandro Casona
Prohibido suicidarse en primavera performed four months after Casona leaves Spain.
1938 Jesús Bal y Gay
Seeks exile in Mexico, where he receives governmental grants until 1940
Jan 1939 Pere Calders
Departs for Mexico, where he spends the next 23 years and writes some of his best works. Works in Mexico City for the publishing company Union Tipográfica Editorial Hispanoamericana (UTEHA) and writes regularly for exile journals: Quaderns de l'Exili, Lletres, La Nova Revista, Pont Blau, Fascicles Literaris.
1939 María José de Chopitea
Crosses the border accompanied by the staff of Luis Octavio Madero, Mexican consul in Barcelona, to whom she is engaged. Spends a few months in Paris and Geneva before embarking for Mexico.
1939 Rodolfo Halffter
After an invitation from the Mexican Government, took exile in Mexico City
1939 Rodolfo Halffter
Together with Anna Sokolov, a pupil of Martha Graham, he founded the dance company La paloma azul
1940 María José de Chopitea
Begins to write for a number of magazines and newspapers, including El Nacional, Nosotras, Confidencias, Todo, Mañana, La semana ilustrada, Nuevo Mundo and others.
1940 Rodolfo Halffter
Professor of Music Analysis at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música
1940 Rodolfo Halffter
Director of Ediciones Mexicanas de Música
1940–1942 Jesús Bal y Gay
Worked for the Casa de España, later Colegio de México
1940–1945 Julio Alejandro
Imprisoned by the Japanese in Manila, in terrible conditions. Granted a visa to the USA, washing dishes in exchange for his passage on board ship. Rejects US citizenship on arrival in San Diego and moves to Mexico.
1940–1951 Jesús Bal y Gay
Wrote music criticism for the newspaper El Universal
1941 Josep Carner
Publishes Nabí.
1941 Ramón J. Sender
Back in Mexico, Sender is frightened by the assassination of Leon Trotsky, and decides to return to the USA.
1942 María Luisa Algarra
Granted political asylum in Mexico, where she marries the painter José Reyes Meza and remains until her death.
1942 Alvaro Arauz
Moves to Mexico.
1943–1949 Jesús Bal y Gay
Worked as a journalist for the British Propaganda Office
1944 María Luisa Algarra
La primavera inútil premiered by the Grupo Proa at the Teatro del Sindicato de Electricistas.
1945 Álvaro Custodio
Moves from Cuba to Mexico, where he settles.
1946 Rodolfo Halffter
Appointed director of the journal Nuestra Musica where he promoted the work of living Mexican composers
1946 Rodolfo Halffter
Founded the series Conciertos de los lunes a showcase for the works of living Mexican composers
1946 Antonio [Antonio Ruiz Soler]
Returned to Latin America. In Mexico, they first-performed Zapateado to music by Pablo Sarasate
1946 Jesús Bal y Gay
Founder and editor of the music journal Nuestra Música
1946–1952 Álvaro Custodio
Works as film critic and scriptwriter.
1947 Juan Miguel de Mora
Begins to publish novels, essays and collections of articles.
1947 Jesús Bal y Gay
Appointed director of the musicology section of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes, presided by Carlos Chávez
1948 Gustavo Pittaluga
Settled in Mexico
1950 María de la O Lejárraga
María sells the house in Nice and moves to New York, then to Hollywood. She fails in her attempt to sell her stories and comedies there. She moves to Mexico, then to Buenos Aires, where she spends the last 24 years of her life, writing, translating, and working for the press.
1951–1977 Julio Alejandro
Moves to Mexico, intending to stay for six months. Works as a teacher and writes screenplays, including a number for director Luis Buñuel: Abismos de pasión (1953 - from Wuthering Heights); Nazarín (1958); Viridiana (1961) and Tristana (1970).
1952 Juan Miguel de Mora
His career as a dramatist begins, though many of his plays remain unpublished.
1952 Álvaro Custodio
Dedicates himself to writing for television.
1953 María Luisa Algarra
Casandra o la llave sin puerta performed at the Sala Molière, directed by Pedro Galván.
1953 Rodolfo Halffter
Composed his first twelve-tone work, Tres piezas para orquesta, purported to be the first dodecafonic work composed in Mexico
1953–1973 Álvaro Custodio
Director of the Compañía del Teatro Clásico de México.
1955 Julio Alejandro
Wins the Premio Ariel al Mejor Argumento Original for his screeplay, El gran autor, written in 1953, and the Premio Ariel a la Mejor Adaptación for Feliz año, amor mío (an adaptation of Stephan Zweig's Carta a una desconocida).
1957–1964 Jesús Bal y Gay
Music director of the radio station of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
1958–1964 Jesús Bal y Gay
Teaches music at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
1960 José Ramón Arana
Marries Elvira Godás
1967 Rodolfo Halffter
Premio Nacional de Ciencias y Artes
1968 Juan Miguel de Mora
Completes Plaza de las Tres Culturas which, according to the 1978 edition, «nadie se atrevió a escenificar»: written in response to the violent suppression of a student demonstration in Mexico that year (the same year that the country hosted the Olympics).
1968 Rodolfo Halffter
Member of the Academy of Fine Arts
1978 Juan Miguel de Mora
Publication of Plaza de las Tres Culturas.
1987 Rodolfo Halffter
Dies at the age of 87
1991 Rafael Alberti
Travels to Italy and Mexico with his new wife. Gives recitals in Mexico with Nuria Espert.
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