Centre for the Study of Hispanic Exile

Pedro Garfias [1901–1967]

Date of Birth: 27 May 1901 Salamanca
Died: 9 Aug 1967 Monterrey (age 66)

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Poet associated with the 'ultraísta' movement, exiled in Mexico.

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1901 Salamanca, calle Varillas 20
Born in Salamanca to Antonio Garfias Domínguez and M. Dolores Zurita Chía.
1905 Osuna, calle el Cristo 6
Moves to Osuna when his father is promoted. Attends primary school.
1909 Pedro's mother dies.
Jan 1911–Aug 1916 Cabra/Córdoba
His father's job takes them to Cabra, where he attends the Instituto General y Técnico.
1916–1918 Seville
Goes to University to study Law, Philosophy and Letters. Comes into contact with the Anarchist movement in Seville. Publishes modernist poems in journals and newspapers in Cabra, Osuna and Madrid.
May 1916–Mar 1922 Cabra
Publishes in newspapers La Opinión and El Popular in Cabra.
1918 Madrid
Moves to Madrid.
1918–1924 Madrid
Publishes his poems in most literary journals of the 'ultraista' movement, such as Los Quijotes, Grecia, Ultra, Alfar and Mediodía.
Apr 1918 Madrid
Moves to Madrid, where he continues his university studies. Attends the 'ultraista' tertulia of the Café Colonial, where he meets Rafael Cansinos-Assens.
Oct 1918 Madrid
Signs the Manifiesto Ultraísta, along with Cansinos-Assens, Guillermo de Torre and others. Other close members of the movement were Gerardo Diego, Eugenio Montes, Jorge Luis Borges, Juan Larrea and Adriano del Valle.
Nov 1922–Mar 1923 Madrid
Founds the journal Horizonte, which he edits.
1923–1928 Osuna
Returns to Andalusia.
1928–1929 Écija/Sevilla, calle Garcilópez 10
Moves to Écija.
1 Dec 1929 Osuna/Seville
Marries Margarita Fernández.
Dec 1929–1931 La Carolina
Works as a tax collector in La Carolina.
1931 Madrid
Joins the Communist Party.
Apr 1931–1936 Madrid
Lives in Madrid. Works for a few months as a secretary at the Dirección de Obras Hidráulicas.
May 1933–Sep 1935 Madrid
Starts writing for the Heraldo de Madrid and El Sol. Publishes articles in the journal Octubre.
Jul 1936 Joins the Republican Army. Fights in Andalusia.
1937 Valencia
Works for the Subcomisariado de Propaganda del Comisariado General de Guerra in Valencia, which publishes his book of war poems, Poesías de la guerra. Takes part in the II Congreso Internacional de Escritores para la Defensa de la Cultura and contributes to the Homenaje al Poeta Federico García Lorca, compiled by Emilio Prados, and to the Romancero General de la Guerra de España, compiled by Prados and Rodríguez Moñino.
1938 Awarded the Premio Nacional de Literatura for his Poesías de guerra.
10 Feb 1939 Portbou
Leaves Spain for France.
10–27 Feb 1939 Toulouse/France
Interned in a detention camp.
6 Mar–16 May 1939 Faringdon/Oxfordshire
Invited to England, along with other exiles, by Lord Faringdon. He gives two lectures at the University of Oxford. His book Primavera en Eaton Hastings is considered by Dámaso Alonso to be the best book about Spanish exile.
Jun 1939 Mexico D. F.
Arrives in Mexico on board the ship Sinaia.
Jun 1939–1943 México D. F., calle Edison 7
Settles in Mexico City. He has financial problems which he partly resolves by playing dominoes. Publishes in the journals España Peregrina, España Popular, Romance, Cuadernos Americanos, El Nacional and Las Españas.
Sep 1943–Jun 1948 Monterrey, calle Zaragoza, 725
Secretary to the Director of the Departamento de Acción Social Universitaria at the Universidad de Monterrey in Nuevo León. Founds the journal Armas y Letras.
Aug 1948–Sep 1952 Mexico D.F., calle Vasconcelos
Travels around Mexico, giving lectures in Oaxaca, Toluca, Tampico, Mérida, Veracruz and Xalapa. Returns to Mexico City.
Sep 1952–1967 Guadalajara/Mexico
Lives in Guadalajara, though he travels continuously around Mexico: Tampico, Mexico City, Monterrey...
1953 Guadalajara/Mexico
He is divorced from his wife.
1953–1967 Several periods in hospital due to alcoholism.
1954 Guanjuato
Stays in Guanajuato, where he lectures at the University.
Apr–Aug 1967 Monterrey
Travels to Monterrey, where he spends the last months of his life.
9 Aug 1967 Monterrey
Dies at the University Hospital in Monterrey with cirrhosis of the liver.
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Works

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Resources

Palabra virtual
Selection of poems by Pedro Garfias read by the poet himself.
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